Each device, application and idea needs to be analyzed according to each particular requirement and unique environment. One solution doesn’t fit all.

As a scientist, you want to decide which field solver best suits your application. INTEGRATED’s field solvers have been proven in a diverse range of applications for over 25 years. Our Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD), Boundary Element Method (BEM) / Method of Moment (MoM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) solvers are available in the same package to allow you to select the best method for any problem. Now, you can independently verify the solution within one program, and avoid the effort of verifying through a second program.


Equivalent electric current on the top surface of a printed ultra wide band antenna

Various electromagnetic numerical techniques are used in the different forms of commercial electromagnetic software. These techniques are categorized into time domain techniques and frequency domain techniques. The time domain methods include the FDTD, the time domain integral equations, or the singularity expansion methods (SEM), the time domain FEM. On the other hand, the frequency domain methods include the Method of Moments (MoM) for solving the integral equations and the Finite Element Method (FEM), for example.

FDTD is a direct solution of Maxwell’s equations and has many advantages such as:

  • a high accuracy for a wide variety of radio frequency (RF) and antenna problems
  • no storage in time and no matrix inversion needed
  • it gives the solution for broadband or ultrawideband problems from a single execution of the problem using a short pulse
  • it provides both the near-field and far-field results from a single run.

In addition, understanding the time-domain behaviour of antennas is important because processes in nature generally do not follow sinusoidal patterns.